34.cover-source

Pictured is a composite scanning electron micrograph of foraging Giant Asian honey bee (Apis dorsata) wing regions collected from sites with low (Top) and high (Bottom) levels of pollution in Bangalore, India. The image reveals the presence of pollen (Top) and respiratory suspended particulate matter (Bottom). Geetha G. Thimmegowda et al. found that differences in air pollution exposure were associated with differences in survival, behavior, heart rate, blood cell count, and stress- and immunity-related gene expression in A. dorsata, as well as in lab-reared fruit flies. The results offer insight into the adverse effects of air pollution on pollinators. See the article by Thimmegowda et al. on pages 20653–20661. Image credit: Geetha G. Thimmegowda.

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